ALEXANDER THE GREAT (356 – 323 BC)

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ALEXANDER THE GREAT (356 – 323 BC)

                 Khawvel mihring zingah hian “The Great” (Ropuia) ni phak tlemtê chauh an awm a, chung zingah chuan Alexander-a hi hriat hlawh pawl tak a ni ngei ang. Mi ropuite pawh hi chi hrang hrang an ni hlawm a, Alexander-a hi chu sipai hruaitu ropui (General) a ni a, a hun lai khawvel nena thlir chuan Alexander ropuia tih loh rual a ni lo.

                 BC 356-ah khan Makedonia ram lal Philip-a chuan a nupui Olympias-i lakah fapa duhawm tak, Alexander-a a nei a. Arsi chetvel dan thlira aien thiam (artrologer) pakhat chuan, “I fapa hi indonaah tumahin an hneh thei lo vang,” tiin lalpa Philip-a chu a hrilh a ni awm e. A sawi dik hlauh lehnghal a.

                 Nikhat chu sakawr sawizawi loh pian ṭha pui mai, a hming Bucephalus an tih chu Philip-a an rawn zawrh a. Sakawr chung chùan thiamho chuan a chunga chuan tumin an bei hlawm a. Tumah an hlawhtling ta lo va, lal fapa, mipa naupang Alexander-a chu a lo kal a, sakawr lakamah a man a, sakawr chuan a hlim thla a hmuha a hlauh loh nan ni lam a hawi tir a, a chul a, a chungah chuangin chu sakawr chu a thunun ta a ni.

                 Philip-a pawhin a fapa chu a chhuang hle a, “Ka fapa, Makedonia hi i tan chuan a tê lutuk a, i phu tâwk lal ram i la zwng dawn nia,” a ti e, an ti. He thu hi zawlnei tak, a der ni lo, thusawi ang maiin a lo thleng dik ta a ni. Chuta ṭanga kum 20 lek chhungin Alexander-a chuan Greek ram-ho a thunun hnuin Persia lalram ropui tak a la a, khawchhak lamah ram a zauh va, Aigupta leh India ram thlengin ram a la ta duai duai mai a ni.

                 Tirhkoh Paul-a chuan Gamaliel-a ke bula seilian a nih chu a chhuang hle a, Alexander-a pawh khawvela zirtirtu ropui Aristotle-a ke bula seilian a ni. Aristotle-a chuan Alexander-a chu mi ropui tak ni turin a duang chhuak a, hnehtu ropui, mite hruaitu ṭhaah a siam a ni kan ti thei ang.

                 Alexander-a chuan mize duhawm tak a nei a, chung zinga pakhat chu hnathawk ṭhate a chawimawi thiam a, a hlutsak bawk hi a ni. A sakawr Bucephalus-a chu a thi a, hun rei tak a pu tana nung tawh a nih avangin Alexander-a pawhin a ṭhian ṭha thi ang maiin a sûn a. Khawpui pakhat a din a, chumi hmingah chuan ‘Bucephalia’ a vuah tak thu chanchin ziaktu ropui Plutarch-a chuan a ziak a ni.

                 Alexander-a chu hnehtu ropui satliah mai ni lovin, rorêl thiam leh fing tak a ni a. Khawvel pumpui mai chu pumkhata siam a tum a. A ram hnehte chu zalênna zau tak a pe ṭhin a, tin, Greek finna leh thiamna a thehdarh tel zel ṭhin. Kum 13 chhung chauh ro a rél a, kum 33 mî chauh a nih laiin a thi a, hemi chhung hian Europe aṭanga Asia ram, India thlengin Greek thiamna leh finna a thehdarh a, hmasawnna kawng sialtu ropui a ni.

                 Alexander-a chu indo mî, mi hrat khawkheng tura lo piang a ang khawp mai. A naupan lai pawhin a lukham hnuaiah chemtê leh Illiad (iLLiad) a dah reng ṭhin an ti. (Illiad hi Greek ho indona chanchin, homer-a ziak a ni). Vawikhat chu a pa ram la a lo hawng a, a pain ram lak tur a zuahsak lo vang tih hlauvin a ṭap a ni an ti. Vawikhat pawh a ṭhian pakhatin Olympic intlansiaknaah tel ve a tum em? tih a zawt a. Alexander-a chuan, “Tum teh reng mai, intlangsiak pui tur lal dang an awm phawt chuan,” a ti e, an ti.

                 Philip-a chuan BC 338-ah Charonea indonaah Atheni leh Theban ṭangrual a hneh a. He indonaah hian lal tlangval kum 18 mi lek Alexander-a chuan Makedonia sakawr chung chuang sipai rual a ho va, hnehna a lo chang der tawh a ni.

                 BC 336-ah chuan lalpa Philip-a chu a tual thi a, he tual thahnaah hian Alexander-a chu a tel ve ring an awm. Mahse, finfiahna engmah a awm lo. Philip-a chu roréltu thiltithei tak, rem hre tak a ni na a, a inchhung khurah buaina a la lut tlat mai a. Alexander-a nu Olympias chu hnawlin Makedonia nula ‘Cleopatra’ an tih chu a nei a. Mo lawmnaah chuan buai laihna a lo thleng ta a. Zu an rui nasa hlawm hle a ni ta ve ang, Cleopatra-i patea (uncle) chuan milianho hnenah chuan, “Lal ṭhutthleng la rawn luahtu tur a lo pian theih nan Greek pathiante i dil ang u,” a ti ta vel a. Chutah Alexander-a thinrim chuan zu bur lian zet maia vuak tumin chu pa chu a tin ta ur mai a. Philip-a zurui ding ṭha hlei thei lo chuan a ngunhnám phawiin a fapa chu sah a tum a. Mahse, a tlu a, a bawk phêk ta dêr a. Alexander-a chuan nuihsawh tak chungin, “Ngaiteh u, Europe aṭanga Asia paltlang tura chu, ṭhutthleng pakhat aṭanga a dang a kal tur pawhin la inpalthlu nawk nawk maia le,” a ti a ni awm e.

                 Alexander-a chu BC 336-ah, kum 20 pawh a la tling fum fe lo tihin, Makedonia lal a lo ni ta a. Lal ṭhutthlenga a ṭhut phat aṭangin hmelma hmachhawn tur a nei nghal a. Trace, Thebes, Illyria leh Thessaly te a lakah an hel a. Heng lalram te hi Philip-a hnuaia lo kûn tawhte an ni.

                 Thessaly (Greek ram pakhat)-ah sipaite hruaiin a kal a, thisen chhuah lovin inremna a siampui a. Tin, Greek lal dangte pawhin Alexander-a chu an lal, an hotuah an pawm a. Tichuan, Philip-a hova rem an lo ruat tawh, Asia ram rùn programme pawh chu nemnghetin, Alexander-a chu an hotu berah an pawm leh ta a ni.

                 Persia lal ram zau leh ropui tak mai run tura a thawh chhuah hmain Tracian-ho te, Illyrians-ho te, Thebes-ho te chu a mal tê têin a hneh hmasa phawt a. Thebes-ah mi 60,000 (singruk) lai a that a, hmeichhia leh naupang an mante pawh salah hralh an ni bawk. Hei hi a laka helte tan ṭih khai atana a tih a ni.

                 Heng indonate hian, Alexander-a indo thiamzia te, General ṭha lutuk mai a nihzia te a rawn tilang ta a. Mi huaisen leh rorum a nihzia miten an hre ta tak tak a, a thu vut vut tawh hle a ni.

                 Emperor Napoleon-a kha, “Khawvela General ṭha ber” (The Greatest General of all times) tiin chanchin ziaktu (historian) ten an vuah ṭhin a, chu Napoleon-a ngei chuan, khawvela General ṭha leh ropui, a ngaihsan, mi pasarih hming a tlar a – “Alexander, Hanibal, Julius Ceasar, Gustavus Adolphus, Turenne, Prince Eugene leh Frederick the Great,” tiin.

                 Asia rûn tura a chhuah hmain Alexander-a chuan lal chhungkaw ram (royal estate) chu a ṭhian ṭhate a sem zo deuh vek mai a. Chung a ṭhiante zinga pakhat, Pediccas-a chuan, “I tan eng nge i dah ve tak le?” tiin a zawt a. Lal chuan “Beiseina,” tiin a chhang a, Pediccas-a chuan, “I sipaite hian chu chu kan ṭawmpui a che. I ruala kala indo turte hian i beiseina bak engmah kan mamawh lo,” a ti a ni an ti.

                 BC 334-a lo thleng a, sakawr chungchuang sipai (cavalry) sangnga leh ke sipai (infantry) singthum hruaiin Persia lal, Daria do turin a thawkchhuak ta a. Persian sipai rual chuan Granicus luipuia lo dan an tum a. Ṭhalfang sur chur chur palthlangin cavalry-ho chuan lui an kai a, chutah ke sipai an kal ve leh ta. Indona ropui tak a lo thleng ta a ni.

                 Alexander-a chu rél hmatáwngah a tel a, a phaw leh a lukhum sir lehlam lehlama pehbuk var avang chuan Persian ho chuan awlsam takin an lo hre thei ta mai a. amah ngei mai chu thah tumin an rawn tum bing ta a. A dinhmun a harsa ta hle mai tihin a ṭhianpa ‘Cleitus-a’ chuan a rawn chhanchhuak ta a ni an ti.

                 Alexander-a hmaah chuan khawpui kulh nei mi te chu an tlawm ta zung zung mai le. Rang takin thû a pawt chat a, a bawhzui nghal vat ṭhin avangin hmelmate an lo inring ṭha hman ṭhin lo va, a hlawkpui hle mai. Mahse, Persian lal Daria do tura a chhuah dawn hian vawikhat chu a hmanhmawh leh a dawhtheih loh a thihpui ṭhelh a ni.

                 Nilengin ni sa rum rut hnuaiah sakawr chung a chuang a, chutah Cynus luipui vawt ruih mai an va thleng a. Fimkhur lo zetin tuiah a zuang lut a, tuiah a inchiah a, hemi avang hian nasa takin a khua a sik ta a ni. A damdawi thiam hruaite an beidawng ta a, chutah Acarnania mî, Philip-a chuan a dam nan damdawi a siamsak thei ang tih a rawn hrilh a. Damdawi a siam mêk lai chuan amah vengtu hlun Permenio chuan fimkhur turin lehkha a rawn pêktir a. “Lal Daria chuan kha doctor kha túra hrai hlum tur chein a tham a ni ngei ang,” tiin.

                 Lalin lehkha a lo chhiar mêk laiin chu doctor chuan a damdawi tui a siam chu a rawn keng a. Alexander-a chuan, “Hei hi chhiar teh,” tih pahin no chu a la a, a in zo ta vek a. Philip-a chu a ring a, a ring fuh bawk. A enkawl dam ta thuai a, Persian-ho hmachhawn turin a inbuatsaih leh ta a.

                 Persian lal, Daria (Darius) chu a khawvel hriat zawng zawng deuhthaw chunga rorel a ni bawk a, ropui a inti khawp a, chuvangin ‘lal ropui’ tiin a invuah nghe nghe a ni. A lalram a zau hle a, Asia khaw thlang zawng zawng, Aigupta thlengin a lalram a ni. Mahse, a chung a lungawi lo, amah paihthlâk duh lal eng emaw zat an awm a. Tin, Alexander-a hnuaiah chuan nuamsa zâwk leh changkang zâwkin an awm dawn tih an hriat avangin, a hnuaia awm an thlang zâwk.

                 Daria chu lal chak lo, indo thiam si lo a ni a, sipai erawh a ngah êm êm thung a. Persian sipaite leh Greek sipaite chu Issus phaizáwlah an inhmachhawn ta a. Makedonia sipaite chuan chiang takin an hneh leh ta a. Lal Daria chu bak léngin a tlanchhia a, a nupui fanau leh a nu chu Makedonia sipai ten an mansak ta a.

                 Alexander-a chuan Daria a ûm a; mahse, hlawhchhamin a lo hâwng a. Daria nupui hnenah chuan Daria a dam thu te, ṭha tak a enkawl an nih tur thu te leh an phu tâwk ang a enkawl an nih tur thu te a hrilh a. Mîte chuan a thilphalzia leh a dawh theihzia chu mak an ti hle. Daria nupui “Stateira” chu, khawvela hmeichhe hmelṭha bera ngaih a ni a, hnehtu, tu pawhin man sela an tihchhiat vak chu a rinawm loh ve rêng a ni.

                 Alexander-a chuan Daria chu inpe mai turin a phût a, Daria erawh chu a inpe mai duh bîk lo. Chuvangin chiang zeta hneh a ṭul ta a ni. Mahse chumi hmain Syria run hmasak phawt a tum ta a. Syria khawpui Tura chu thliarkara awm a ni a, chuti maia lak mai theih rual a ni lo. Tui leh chirhdup hmun mel chanve laia sei chu chhungkhatin, Sidon ho lawng tam tak hmangin ‘Tura’ chu a lût ta a. Thiam chi tinreng hmangin Tura chu a hneh leh ta a ni.

                 Hemi hnu hian Palestina leh Aigupta a la leh a. Aigupta-ah chuan khawpui thar a din a, ama hming chawiin Alexandria tiin a hming a vuah a. Chu khawpui thar chu lawng chawlh hmun hmingthang tak a ni ta a, chu chu Alexander-a rem hriatzia tilangtu niin, kum sanghnih aia tam a ding ta a; a hming leh amah hriatrengna khawpui a lo ni ta bawk. Aigupta-a a awm lai hian Ammon ho biakinah a kal a, chuta pathian chuan a fapaah a lo pawm a ni, an ti.

                 Alexander-a chu Aigupta leh Syria lal thar a lo ni ta bawk a, BC 331-ah Tura khawpui a lo lût a, Persia do zai a rél leh ta a ni. Lal Daria chuan sipai nuai sawm (10,00,000) lai neiin an sawi ṭhin; mahse, chumi chanve vel chu a nei mai thei e. Tichuan, Persia sipai tam pui mai leh Greek sipai sangnga lek chu Gangamela hmunah an indo ta a. He indona hi ‘Arbella Indona’ tiin an sawi ṭhin.

                 He indonaah hian Greek sipai, sakawr chungchuang mîte chu an ṭangkai êm êm a, Alexander-a chu hnehtu a ni leh ta a. Lal Daria chu a tlanbo leh thei hram na a, chutih lai khawvela lal ropui bera ngaih Persia lalram chu a tlâwm ta a. Chuta ṭangin ‘Persepolis’ khawpui, khawvela khawpui hausa ber leh ropui bera ngaih chu a lût leh a, Alexander-a ta an lo ni ta.

                 Alexander-a chu Daria man turin a thawkchhuak leh a; mahse, a man hmain phiarrutu pakhatin Daria chu a vit hlum a, Greek-ho chuan a ruang chauh an va hmu ta a. Alexander-a chuan amah zahna entir nan a kawrfualin ruang chu a khuh a ni an ti.

                 BC 328-ah chuan Persian lalram zawng zawng chu Alexander-a hnuaiah an kûn ta a. Fing tak, thilphal tak leh dawhthei takin a ram lâkte chungah ro a rel a, chu chuan a hnungzuitu Makedonia mîte a ti lunghnur hle a. Chuvangin thil lungngaihthlâk tak a lo thleng ta a.

                 Zan khat chu Samarkand kulh chhungah kût ropui tak an lawm a, chutia mi sàwm ṭhenkhat chuan Alexander-a fakna hla an sa ta a, pathian a ni ringawt mai tiin an chawimawi a. Chu thil chu a ṭhianpa Cleitus-a zurui chuan a ngaithei ta hauh lo mai a, thinrim zetin Alexander-a chu sawisêlin a dem a. Makedonia sipaite avang chauhva Alexander-a chu hnehtu a nih thu te, Granicus indonaa a nun chhanchhuaktu chu amah Cleitus-a ngei mai chu a ni tih thu te a ân chhuahpui ta a. He ruai ṭhehnaa tel ve Greek ṭhenkhat chuan a duh lo chung inchhúng aṭangin an hruai chhuak a. Mahse, a lokir leh a, Alexander-a hmuhsitna leh tihelna thu a rawn chhakchhuak leh ta a. Alexander-a thin thawk chuan feiin a chhun hlum ta der mai a. Chumi hnu rei lotêah a inchhir ta êm êm mai a, a puan inah a lut a, a mu tawp a, chaw a ei duh lo va, ni khat leh zan khat chhung chu a ṭhiante tumahin an hnem thei lo. Tual thatah a inngai a, a inthiam lo êm êm a ni.

                 Ni leh thla a lo ral a, General ropui chu hmangaihna khurah a tlu lut ve ta. Sogdiana Rock a hneh a, chu hmun aṭang chuan nula hmelṭha zet mai ‘Rokana’ chu a sipaiten an rawn man a. Nula leh hmeichhe ngaihsak lo val kha, kulh neitu Oxyartes-a fanu, no bawih tak mai chu a nêp phal ta awzawng lo va. Nula hmangaihna chuan a man tâk tlat avangin a sipai hmunpui Bactria-ah a lo lêt leh a, chu ram dan ang chuan mo leh moneitu chuan chhang an phel a, ropui takin mo an lawm ta a ni.

                 BC 327-ah chuan Alexander-a’n India ram a rawn rap a, Indus lui a kân a, Hydaspes (Jhelum) indonaah India lal pakhat Porus-a chu a hneh a. Alexander-a chuan Porus-a hnenah, “Eng tin nge ka tih ang che?” a ti a. Porus-a chuan, “Lalin lal a enkawl angin,” tiin a chhang a. A huaisenna chu a ngaihsan êm avangin Alexander-a chuan a lalram a pe lêt leh a, Makedonia venhimna hnuaiah a dah a ni, an ti.

                 Alexander-a leh sipaite chuan, Hyphasis (Beas) lui an rawn thleng a, Makedonia sipaite chuan kal zel an duh ta lo va. Mél singkhat leh sanghnih zet an lo kal ta a, indo an ning tawh a, hnehtu nih pawh an chhangkham zo ta. Chuvangin Alexander-a pawhin ram la zel tura a remruatna a sût ta rih a. Thil phal tak leh zahawm takin a sipai tam tak chu lawmman hlu tak pein a hawn tir a, Babulon-ah a kir ve leh ta a. https://ekhai.com

                 Babulon lal ina rei lotê a dam loh hnuin BC 323-ah a thi ta a. Titi léng vêlah chuan, túra hrâi hlum nia sawi a ni a; mahse, a taksa hah lutuk vanga thi a nih a rinawm. Kum 13 chhúng chauh a lal hman a, a thih chuan kum 33 mi chauh a ni bawk; mahse, Alexander ropuia a ni hman tho. Ram zau tak a la a, hnehtu ropui a ni bawk a; mahse, a thih rualin a lalram chu a boral ve nghal mai a. Mahse, hnehtu ropui, Greek finna thehdarhtu a ni a, khawvel chanchin ziahnaah chuan Alexander Ropuia a ni reng tawh dawn a ni.

                                Alexander-a chanchin hi “Khawvêl Mi Ropuite” tih lehkhabu, Malsawmdawngliana ziak aṭanga lâk chhuah a ni.